Types of Hepatitis Based on the Cause, What are they?

Types of Hepatitis Based on the Cause, What are they?

donutmedialab.com — Hepatitis causes inflammation of the liver and causes liver disorders. Hepatitis is caused by a viral infection. However, habits and genetic factors also influence. That is why, the type of hepatitis is divided into two, viral hepatitis and non-viral hepatitis.

Types of hepatitis due to virus infection

Types of hepatitis due to virus infection

Hepatitis disease due to virus infection is one of the most common hepatitis experienced by the community. Experts then divide the hepatitis virus into five types, namely hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E.

These five viruses can trigger acute hepatitis which can last for approximately 6 months. According to Basic Health Research in 2014, it was estimated that 28 million Indonesians were infected with hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

Although each virus has different characteristics, infection with these five viruses shows signs and symptoms of hepatitis that are similar. The following is more information about the types of hepatitis due to viral infection.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a type of hepatitis caused by infection with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). This disease is a contagious liver infection and is endemic in developing countries. The reason is, hepatitis A is related to environmental hygiene and clean and healthy behavior.

In addition, sanitation systems in developing countries are also a contributing factor to the widespread spread of HAV. There are several conditions that lead to hepatitis A transmission, such as:

  • consumption of food and drink contaminated with the virus,
  • use of water contaminated with feces of hepatitis A sufferers, and
  • direct contact with sufferers, such as having sex with people with hepatitis.

Although the number of cases is quite large, hepatitis A is a disease with mild to moderate symptoms. Most people make a full recovery and are immune to HAV infection.

Even so, hepatitis A virus infection can also develop into chronic hepatitis and cause severe conditions. That’s why a hepatitis A vaccination program is needed to prevent this disease.

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Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). This virus can be transmitted through contact with blood, semen, and other body fluids that are contaminated with the virus.

Transmission of this type of viral hepatitis can also occur through several things, namely:

  • blood transfusions contaminated with HBV,
  • the use of syringes exposed to the HBV virus,
  • share injection drugs, and
  • It is passed from an infected mother to her baby during childbirth.

Generally, this hepatitis can last for 6 months or acute hepatitis. If it is more than 6 months, it means you have symptoms of chronic hepatitis B. This hepatitis is more common in babies which is transmitted during childbirth.

If not treated immediately, hepatitis B can increase the risk of other complications of liver disease, such as liver cirrhosis, liver cancer, and liver failure. That’s why, you need to immediately consult a doctor to get hepatitis treatment if you experience HBV symptoms.

Fortunately, there is now a hepatitis B vaccine program as a form of prevention that is believed to be safe and effective.

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is an inflammation of the liver caused by infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). If left untreated, this infection can damage the liver and cause serious complications.

The mode of transmission of hepatitis C is not much different from other types of hepatitis, namely through contact with contaminated blood.

In most cases of hepatitis C, HCV blood sticks to a needle that is shared for medicine or tattooing. Transmission through sexual contact may occur, but is quite rare.

Compared to other hepatitis diseases, hepatitis C is a fairly dangerous disease. The reason is, there is no vaccine that can prevent HCV. Therefore, by avoiding risk factors, it is highly recommended to be free from this viral infection.

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Hepatitis D

Hepatitis D (HDV) or also known as delta virus is the rarest type of hepatitis. However, hepatitis D also includes hepatitis which is quite dangerous.

This is because hepatitis D requires HBV to reproduce. Therefore, hepatitis D can only be found in people with hepatitis B.

With the presence of hepatitis D and B viruses in the body, both viruses can cause worse health problems.

The good news is that hepatitis D can be prevented by getting the hepatitis B vaccine. However, this prevention only works in people who have never had hepatitis B.

Hepatitis E

Hepatitis E

Hepatitis E is a type of hepatitis whose mode of transmission is almost similar to HAV, namely through consumption of water or food contaminated with the hepatitis E virus (HEV).

In addition, consumption of undercooked or raw meat, and transfusion of infected blood can also be risk factors.

Outbreaks of this disease are common in a number of developing countries, such as some areas in Asia, including Indonesia.

So far there is no vaccine to prevent hepatitis E, so you need to live a clean and healthy lifestyle to avoid this disease.

Types of non-virus hepatitis

In addition to viral infections, hepatitis can also be caused by other factors, ranging from lifestyle to genetic disorders. The following are some types of hepatitis that are not caused by viral (non-viral) infections.

alcoholic hepatitis

alcoholic hepatitis

Alcoholic hepatitis is inflammation of the liver that occurs as a result of long-term alcohol consumption. Even so, people who are dependent on alcohol do not necessarily have this type of hepatitis.

In some cases, people who consume alcohol within normal limits can be at risk of developing this disease.

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This hepatitis disease can develop into serious liver function disorders, such as liver cirrhosis.

Unfortunately, there is no specific drug to treat cirrhosis. The reason is, normal liver tissue will be damaged and replaced by scar tissue. As a result, the liver will stop functioning and increase the risk of death.

Symptoms caused by alcoholic hepatitis are not much different from hepatitis due to viral infections, such as loss of appetite to the appearance of jaundice.

Therefore, the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis focuses more on stopping the consumption of alcoholic beverages. If the condition of the liver is severely damaged, a liver transplant may be the last option to treat this disease.

Autoimmune hepatitis

Autoimmune hepatitis

Compared to other types of hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis occurs when the body’s immune system attacks liver cells. The cause of hepatitis is not known, but it is possible that it is caused by a genetic disorder that develops due to environmental factors.

If not treated properly, autoimmune hepatitis can lead to hardening of the liver and liver failure. Although it is not an infectious disease, it cannot be prevented.

The symptoms experienced by each sufferer also vary, ranging from joint pain and nausea, to the appearance of jaundice. When it’s severe, autoimmune hepatitis can cause ascites or fluid buildup in the abdomen and mental confusion.

Therefore, proper treatment is needed to overcome this problem, such as:

  • corticosteroid medication (prednisone),
  • immunosuppressive treatment (Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine).

It is possible that this treatment is carried out for life in an effort to control the symptoms that arise.

If you have further questions, please consult your doctor to get a solution and a diagnosis based on the type of hepatitis you are experiencing.

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