donutmedialab.com — Rules for Giving Cervical Cancer Vaccines for Adults in Indonesia. One of the steps to prevent cervical cancer is through the HPV vaccination. So, what are the rules for giving cervical cancer vaccines for adults? Check out the full information below.
Prevention of cervical cancer with the HPV vaccine
Cervical cancer or cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs when cells in the cervix grow abnormally.
Based on data from the World Health Organization (WHO), cervical cancer is listed as the second most common type of cancer in women in Indonesia.
This data also shows that there were 36,633 new cases of cervical cancer detected in women in Indonesia during 2020.
Seeing the number of cervical cancer cases in Indonesia which is quite large, one of the preventive steps that can be taken is the HPV vaccine.
This type of vaccine aims to prevent cervical cancer due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPV can attack epithelial cells in the skin and mucous membranes, such as those found in human reproductive organs.
After HPV attacks, the body’s cells will be damaged and begin to divide abnormally so that it can cause cancer.
For women, HPV vaccination also helps prevent other diseases, including vaginal and vulvar cancer, anal cancer, and genital warts.
Not only that, this procedure can also be done by men to prevent genital warts, penile cancer, anal cancer, and throat cancer (oropharynx).
Giving the vaccine can also reduce the risk of transmitting the HPV virus from men to women.
Types of cervical cancer vaccine
There are more than 100 variants of HPV, but only a few can cause cervical cancer, including HPV-16 and HPV-18.
Even so, other virus variants can also trigger infections in the genital area. Here are some types of HPV vaccine to prevent cervical cancer.
1. Cervarix Vaccine
The Cervarix vaccine is used to prevent infection with HPV-16 and HPV-18, which generally cause cervical cancer.
This type of vaccine prevents cervical cancer and pre-cancer and is only intended for women.
2. Gardasil Vaccine
Gardasil vaccine is able to prevent infection with HPV-16 and HPV-18. In addition, this vaccine can also treat HPV-6 and HPV-11 infections that cause genital warts.
This type of vaccine is used to prevent cervical cancer and pre-cancer, vulvar cancer, vaginal cancer, and anal cancer.
This vaccine can be given to women and men from the age of 9-26 years.
3. Gardasil 9 . Vaccine
The Gardasil 9 vaccine is able to protect the body against nine types of HPV, namely HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-31, HPV-33, HPV-45, HPV-52, and HPV-58.
This type of vaccine is able to prevent diseases caused by HPV infection and can be given to women and men from the age of 9-45 years.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are three types of HPV vaccines that have been approved, namely the bivalent vaccine (Cervarix), the quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil), and the 9-valent vaccine (Gardasil 9).
HPV vaccine schedule for adults
Giving the HPV vaccine is highly recommended before you are sexually active. This could increase the effectiveness of the vaccine in preventing cervical cancer.
Based on the 2020 Indonesian Pediatric Association (IDAI) Immunization Schedule, the HPV vaccine is given to girls aged 9–14 years twice, 6–15 months apart.
Meanwhile, adolescent women or young adults aged 15 years or older were given three vaccinations with a schedule of 0, 1, 6 months for bivalent vaccine (Cervarix) and 0, 2, 6 months for quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil).
According to the CDC. some adult women aged 27–45 years who have not been vaccinated may also decide to get the HPV vaccine after consulting a doctor.
Cervical cancer vaccines in older adults generally provide less benefit. This is because more people in this age group have been exposed to HPV.
As with men wishing to be vaccinated against HPV, it is recommended that older adults consult their doctor first to weigh the benefits and risks.
Mandatory rules for HPV vaccination in Indonesia
As of April 2022, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia added three types of vaccines to the complete routine immunization program, one of which is the HPV vaccine.
The provision of HPV vaccination is useful as a preventive measure for cervical cancer, where the number of new cases is quite high in Indonesia.
Because it is included in the mandatory immunization program, the cervical cancer vaccine will be given free of charge. Even so, not everyone can get it.
Spokesperson for Vaccination of the Indonesian Ministry of Health, dr. Siti Nadia Tarmizi, said the free HPV vaccine is only intended for girls aged 5 and 6 elementary school (SD) as quoted from Kompas.com, Sunday (24/4).
Nadia also added that people who are not targeted, such as teenagers and adults who have not been vaccinated against HPV, must self-vaccinate.
This means that the HPV vaccine is not free and everyone has to pay for it themselves.
The cost of the HPV vaccine ranges from Rp. 700 thousand to Rp. 1.3 million per dose. HPV immunization, which requires three doses of the vaccine, certainly makes the price quite high.
In addition to the HPV vaccine, you can also prevent cervical cancer by practicing safe sex, maintaining vaginal hygiene, and not smoking.
You also need to do regular checkups through the Pap smear test to detect cervical cancer early even though you have received a full dose of HPV vaccination.
If you want to get an adult cervical cancer vaccine, consult your doctor to find out the schedule and more complete information.