donutmedialab.com — Pancreatic cancer can be removed, recognize the 6 types of surgery. Pancreatic cancer is one of the most dangerous types of cancer. Generally, pancreatic cancer is only detected when it enters the late stages. If a malignant tumor in the pancreas does not spread (metastasize) to the blood vessels, lymph nodes, and other nearby organs, the cancer can be removed surgically.
There are several types of surgery that can be performed in the treatment of pancreatic cancer, know the different procedures in the following review.
Types of pancreatic cancer surgery
For pancreatic cancer patients who are still in the early stages of development, surgery can remove the malignant tumor completely.
However, most pancreatic cancers are successfully diagnosed after the cancer has metastasized. In these cases, surgery cannot stop the tumor from growing, but it can remove the main tumor, improve symptoms, and prevent metastatic complications.
The type of surgery performed depends on the part of the pancreas that is affected. Cancer can attack the head, body (midsection), and tail of the pancreas.
Cancer surgeon who will determine the type of surgery that suits your condition.
1. Whipple surgery (pancreatectomy)
Malignant tumors of the pancreas are mostly found in the head of the pancreas. For this reason, whipple surgery or pancreatectomy which involves removing the head of the pancreas can be done.
In Whipple surgery, the surgeon will remove the head of the pancreas and other surrounding tissues, such as the small intestine (duodenum), part of the gallbladder, bile ducts, and lymph nodes, or part of the stomach.
After that, the remaining part of the pancreas will be connected with the remaining part of the gallbladder and small intestine. That way, the digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas and bile can still flow into other digestive tracts.
Pancreatectomy is the most common surgery to remove pancreatic cancer.
However, this surgical procedure is very complex and carries a high risk of causing complications. The success rate of the operation is largely determined by how experienced the team of doctors who will carry out the operation are.
2. Pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD)
PPPD is another type of pancreatic cancer surgery that aims to remove the head of the pancreas. The difference with a pancreatectomy, the doctor does not take part in removing part of the stomach so that this organ remains intact.
So in PPPD surgery, the surgeon will remove the head of the pancreas, small intestine, gallbladder, and part of the bile duct.
After the part is removed, the doctor then connects part of the pancreas to the small intestine. Part of the small intestine will then be connected to the remaining bile ducts.
Patients who have undergone PPPD and Whipple surgery usually need to undergo enzyme therapy for pancreatic cancer. The reason is that at the head of the pancreas there is an enzyme-producing network that helps the digestion of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
3. Distal pancreatectomy
Distal pancreatectomy is an operation performed to remove a malignant tumor that develops in the tail or tip of the pancreas and the surrounding body of the pancreas.
In this operation, the surgeon will remove the tail and part of the body of the pancreas. The spleen, which is located right next to the tail, will also be removed.
However, removal of the spleen puts the patient at high risk of infection with various diseases. This is because the spleen functions to help the body fight viral, bacterial and other pathogenic infections.
Therefore, the doctor will ask the patient to first carry out a number of vaccinations before carrying out this pancreatic cancer surgery.
Distal pancreatectomy cannot be performed in every patient. In general, malignant tumors that attack the tail of the pancreas are detected when they have spread, so surgery is not an effective cancer treatment option.
4. Total prancheatectomy
As the name suggests, this surgery involves removing the entire pancreas. In other words, patients who have undergone surgery for this cancer will live without a pancreas.
In addition to the pancreas, this surgery will remove part of the small intestine, part of the stomach, gallbladder and bile ducts, spleen, and lymph nodes around the pancreas.
Losing the pancreas will certainly affect the digestive process and overall body condition. The body can no longer produce digestive enzymes and hormones that regulate blood sugar.
You will develop diabetes and will need to take insulin medication to control your blood sugar. In addition, you can be more susceptible to infections and blood clots due to removal of the spleen.
In essence, patients who undergo pancreatic cancer surgery take a long time to be able to return to eating normally.
Laparoscopic is a minimal surgical technique that can be done to remove malignant tumors in the pancreas.
While conventional surgery requires a larger abdominal incision, laparoscopic only requires a few small incisions to insert a laparoscope-controlled surgical instrument.
The laparoscope is connected to an optical camera so that the doctor can see the inside of the abdomen through a monitor. This method makes it easier for doctors to remove malignant tumors or parts of the pancreas that are difficult to reach by hand.
Laparoscopy is usually done to reduce the risk of infection and greater blood loss. Because the procedure is simpler, this operation can also proceed more quickly.
6. Palliative surgery
If the cancer has spread far enough and cannot be completely removed surgically, the surgeon will perform palliative surgery. This surgery aims to reduce the symptoms of pancreatic cancer.
Palliative surgery can be planned in advance or as an alternative when performing major surgery to remove part of the pancreas.
Initially, the doctor may perform a pancreatectomy. However, when the doctor sees that the cancer has spread or cannot be removed completely, the doctor then performs palliative surgery to reduce the severity of the disease.
According to the American Cancer Society, palliative surgery is intended for patients with pancreatic cancer that metastasizes rapidly and has a weakened health condition.
Not all pancreatic cancer patients need surgery. Your doctor will determine if you are the right candidate if the surgery is of great benefit to extending your life expectancy.