donutmedialab.com — 5 Dangerous Diseases That Can Be Prevented by Immunization. Many people think that immunization is only for infants and children. In fact, even adults in fact still need to get immunizations regularly to prevent several types of infectious diseases. So, what diseases can be prevented by immunization?
What is immunization?
Immunization is a way of strengthening the immune system to fight certain types of infectious diseases. Immunization is achieved by injecting the vaccine periodically, or it can also be dripped into the mouth (swallowed).
Vaccines are substances made from germs (viruses or bacteria) that have been weakened or are no longer active. When entered into the body, these benign germs will not cause disease.
The germs contained in the vaccine will actually train the immune response to recognize and remember them as potential threats.
At the same time, vaccination will encourage the immune system to form special antibodies. This new antibody is designed to work specifically against disease attacks.
Antibodies will also prevent the development of disease if in the future there are active germs that enter the body.
The immune system and the antibodies that have been formed will become stronger so that the body is immune to disease attacks. Even if you are not completely immune, vaccination is still useful for reducing the severity of a disease.
By vaccinating regularly, you will protect yourself and others from the threat of infectious diseases in the future.
Diseases that can be prevented by immunization
The global immunization program is estimated to save 2-3 million lives each year. Then, what diseases can be prevented by immunization?
1. Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is a viral infection of the liver that can cause liver cancer and cirrhosis. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is transmitted from one person to another through blood, semen, or other body fluids that are contaminated with the virus.
People with weak immune systems are at high risk of contracting this disease. Launching a media release from the Indonesian Ministry of Health, it is estimated that 95% of the 150 thousand babies have the potential to experience chronic hepatitis in the next 30 years.
Hepatitis B infection can be prevented with the hepatitis B vaccine given 5 times. First, in less than 24 hours after birth, then when the baby is two, three, four months old, and again at around 18 months.
2. TB (tuberculosis)
TB is a bacterial infection that attacks the lungs. Based on data from the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015, Indonesia ranks second as the country with the most TB cases in the world.
The trend of the number of people with TB in Indonesia is estimated to always increase by around a quarter of a million lives per year.
TB has even become the number one cause of death in Indonesia in the infectious disease category. About 140,000 deaths from tuberculosis occur every year. The Indonesian Ministry of Health reports that every hour, there are eight cases of death due to tuberculosis.
Well, one way to prevent TB disease is to give BCG immunization. BCG vaccination is only given once to children under two months of age.
If the baby is more than three months old, a tuberculin test should be done first. If the tuberculin result is negative, the BCG vaccine can be given.
Polio or paralytic wilt is an infectious disease caused by a viral infection in the digestive tract and throat. In general, this disease is asymptomatic. Only one in 200 infected people usually show symptoms of illness.
After being named a polio-free country, WHO found 45 new polio cases in Indonesia in 2005. Although since then there have been no new polio cases, the risk of the disease still exists.
Children should get the polio vaccine before they are five years old. The polio vaccine is given four times before the baby is six months old.
The first vaccination is carried out at birth, then at two months, three months, and four months. There are two types of polio vaccine that can be given, namely the oral vaccine (OPV) and the injection (IPV).
If you have completed four doses of childhood polio vaccine, it is recommended that you get the polio booster vaccine as a booster once.
4. Diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough
How to prevent diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough can be done with the DPT vaccination. This vaccination is given five times from the age of two months to six years.
A child will be injected at two months, four months, six months, between 18–24 months, and finally five years.
If you have never received this type of vaccination as a child, it is recommended that you get the Tdap vaccination, which is a follow-up TDP vaccine intended for adults.
The Tdap vaccine is only given once in a lifetime, but a booster vaccination is still recommended every 10 years.
Measles is a contagious infectious disease caused by a virus. This disease is common in children, but you can reduce your chances of getting the disease by getting the measles vaccine. This vaccine is given for the first time when your baby is nine months old.
After that, it is continued for the second time at the age of 18 months and the third administration at the age of 6-7 years or when the child has just entered school. The second measles vaccine does not need to be given if the child has received the MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, and rubella).
Additional immunizations to prevent other diseases
Completing mandatory immunization can prevent the various diseases above. Beyond that, you can get additional immunizations that are tailored to your needs.
Optional immunizations include vaccinations to prevent the various diseases listed below:
- Pneumonia and meningitis caused by pneumococcal bacteria.
- Diarrhea caused by rotavirus.
- Chickenpox (varicella).
- Mumps (mumps).
- German measles (rubella).
- Typhoid fever.
- Hepatitis A.
- Cervical cancer caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).
- Japanese encephalitis.
- Herpes zoster (snake pox / shingles).
- Dengue fever.
It is not difficult to get these various vaccines. You just have to come to health service centers that are shaded by the government, such as regional hospitals, posyandu, and puskesmas.
In addition, immunization programs to prevent infectious diseases are provided free of charge, aka free.